Demystifying IP ratings: Understanding water and dust resistance in electronics


If you’re in the market for new earbuds, a Bluetooth speaker, or any electronic device that you plan to use in environments where water, sweat, or dust might be present, understanding IP ratings is crucial. You may have come across these cryptic codes like IPX5 or IP68 in product descriptions, indicating the device’s level of water and dust resistance. But what exactly do these numbers mean, and how do they impact your everyday usage? Let’s break it down step by step to help you make informed decisions about your purchases.

What are IP and IPX?

IP, IPX, or IPXY are standardized ratings that indicate a product’s ability to prevent solids and liquids from entering and potentially damaging electronic devices. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) oversees and maintains this standard, which is commonly referred to as Ingress Protection.

The numbers following the letters IP denote the level of protection against solids (dust) and liquids (water). The “X” in the rating signifies that there is no specific rating for the solids ingress portion, as most consumer devices are not designed to keep out dust.


Which Resistance is Right for Me?

The choice of resistance level depends on your intended use and the environmental conditions you expect to encounter. Here are some common IP ratings and their implications:

  • IPX2: Offers protection against dripping water and is suitable for moderately sweatproof devices like workout earbuds.
  • IPX4: Provides decent protection against splashing water, making it suitable for ultra-active workouts or outdoor activities in inclement weather.
  • IPX6: Protects against powerful jets of water, making it suitable for use in the shower but not for submersion in water.
  • IPX7/8: Ideal for devices exposed to water submersion, such as waterproof Bluetooth speakers or smartphones designed for underwater use.


Water Resistance by the Numbers

The numbers in the IP water resistance rating indicate the level of protection against water ingress, ranging from protection against dripping water to resistance against high-pressure water jets.


Water Submersion by the Numbers

For true underwater use, look for products with ratings based on the ISO 6425 standard, typically found in diving watches. These ratings indicate the product’s suitability for various water-related activities, from shallow-water swimming to saturation diving.


Dust Resistance by the Numbers

The third digit in the IP rating indicates the level of protection against solid foreign objects, with higher numbers indicating greater protection against dust ingress. Dust-tight ratings are suitable for environments with high levels of dust contamination.


FAQ on Waterproofing

  • Compatibility of IP Ratings: Each level of IPX protection can act as its own standard, so a higher IPX rating does not necessarily imply protection against lower levels of water ingress.
  • Warranty Coverage: Damage from water or dust may void the warranty for IP-rated products, so it’s essential to check the manufacturer’s warranty terms and conditions.
  • Waterproof vs. Water-Resistant: While IPX7/8 ratings indicate protection against water immersion, they do not guarantee continuous underwater use. Continuous submersion may still damage devices over time.
  • Products without IP Ratings: Some devices may survive exposure to water or dust despite lacking an IP rating, but an IP rating provides assurance of a manufacturer’s design for specific environmental conditions.

Understanding IP ratings empowers consumers to make informed decisions about purchasing electronic devices tailored to their usage needs and environmental conditions. Whether you’re selecting earbuds for workouts or a Bluetooth speaker for outdoor adventures, knowing the level of water and dust resistance ensures optimal performance and durability.